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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) can tune brain functions non-invasively, safely and effectively without the need for surgery or drugs. Thus it can enable treatment of several debilitating neurological and psychiatric disorders and enhancement of cognitive capabilities. TMS has gained significant attention as a treatment for depression and is used for investigating therapeutic effects on several brain disorders at human level but its mechanism is poorly understood. We have designed and fabricated a novel focal stimulation coil that can stimulate only a local region of primary motor cortex. In collaboration with Dr. Baron, a neurologist at VCU, we are working to experimentally verify the results from coil design in rats. We have also designed and fabricated an anatomically accurate human brain phantom that can be used to test feasibility and safety of several TMS protocols. The current research is working to establish accurate mechanism underlying TMS by investigating the electric firing patterns in the deeper regions of the brain induced by cortical stimulation. The role of individual nuclei in effecting other nuclei of the motor circuitry will be established. This will enable future development of effective TMS protocols for diagnosis and treatment of several neurological and psychiatric disorders.